Dietary Supplements and their Uses: German Chamomile

by Marissa Sheldon, MPH

Scientific names: Matricaria recutita L.,1 Chamomilla recutita,2 Anthemis L.,3 Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.4

Description: Chamomile is a flowering plant in the same family as daisies.5 There are two main types of chamomile, German and Roman. (Contrary to what one may think, these names do not refer to where the plants originated.) While they are used for similar medicinal purposes, German chamomile is the more popular variety.5 Therefore, this article will be referring to the German variety unless otherwise noted. 

Chamomile flowers, which grow on long, thin green stems, are often less than an inch wide with white petals surrounding a yellow, cone-shaped center5 and have a strong, apple-like scent.6,7 The plants begin to bloom in early summer and are self-seeding,6 meaning that they will rebloom each year without human intervention. Chamomile will grow indoors or outdoors, as long as the plant receives ample sunshine and moisture.6 Flowers should be harvested when they are in full-bloom6 and are either dried to use in teas or capsules, or crushed and steamed to create an oil or liquid extract.5  

Nutrients: Chamomile does not have significant nutritional value. One cup of brewed chamomile tea contains:8

  • 2.37 calories
  • 0 grams (g) protein
  • 0 g fat
  • 0.47 g total carbohydrates
  • 0 g dietary fiber
  • 0 g sugar
  • 2.37 milligrams (mg) sodium
  • 0.104 mg manganese (4.52% daily value)
  • 0.036 mg copper (4.0% DV)
  • 0.024 mg thiamin (2.0% DV)
  • 0.19 mg iron (1.06% DV)
  • 0.095 mg zinc (0.86% DV)
  • 2.37 micrograms (mcg) folate (0.59% DV)
  • 2.37 mg magnesium (0.56% DV)
  • 21.3 mg potassium (0.45% DV)
  • 4.74 mg calcium (0.36% DV)

Geographic origin: German Chamomile is native to southern and eastern Europe,9 and was used by the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians.2,5,9 Now, chamomile is grown worldwide, most commonly in countries including Germany, Hungary, France, Russia, Yugoslavia, Brazil, India, and China.9,10 

Current form of consumption: Chamomile is most often consumed in an herbal tea or as an oral supplement in the form of a capsule, tablet, or oil.5,11 The dried flowers or unsteeped tea leaves can be used for cooking or baking, as in the recipes listed later in this article. Chamomile is also available as a liquid extract that can be consumed or used for aromatherapy or topical skin applications.5,12  

History of use as medicine: Chamomile is thought to be one of the oldest medicinal herbs known to man, dating back to the ancient Egyptians, Romans, and Greeks.2,5,9,13 Dried and crushed chamomile flowers were used by the Egyptians and Greeks to treat skin conditions resulting from dry, harsh weather.14 Chamomile has also used in traditional Chinese medicine, which originated more than 2,000 years ago, for its calming effects.10 

For hundreds of years, chamomile has been used, in one form or another, to treat wounds, bruises, canker sores, sciatica, hemorrhoids, diaper rash, chicken pox, ear infections, colic, conjunctivitis, nasal congestion, skin inflammation, anxiety, insomnia, and upset stomach.13  

Current Uses and Scientific Literature Review: While, as noted above, chamomile is often promoted as a treatment for a wide variety of conditions,2,5,7,13 there is limited research available to prove its benefits.2,5,11,15 The following studies, while promising, do not have enough support to draw definitive conclusions. 

Note: Before reviewing the literature, it is important to note that many peer-reviewed studies may be biased because of industry-funded research to promote product sales, and a conflict of interest is not always disclosed (see information from biologist and nutritionist Marion Nestle on sponsored research here). In this article, we have done our best to exclude any industry-funded studies. As discussed in the Food as Medicine Report (on page 158, specifically), there is a need for more government funding for food as medicine initiatives. 

Cancer Prevention
Chamomile extracts and essential oils have been studied in laboratory settings to observe their effects on various types of cancer cells. More research is needed to understand the exact mechanisms by which chamomile works to treat and prevent cancer and to identify a safe and effective dosage for humans.

  • Chamomile Essential Oil and Breast Cancer (in vitro): An et al (2023)16 examined the effects of chamomile essential oil on triple-negative breast cancer (an aggressive form of breast cancer) cells and determined that the essential oil was able to slow down the cancer cells’ growth and movement, which may be associated with the high content of a compound called terpenoids found in the chamomile.  
  • Chamomile Extract and Cancer (in vitro): Khan et al (2023)17 tested the effects of chamomile extracts on prostate cancer cells. The results indicated that the extracts had both antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. Al-Dabbagh et al (2019)18 observed similar effects in liver cancer cells, with a greater anti-cancer effect resulting from a larger treatment dose of the extract.
  • Apigenin and Cancer Prevention (review): Flavonoids are substances with therapeutic properties naturally found in fruits and vegetables.19 Apigenin is a type of flavonoid found in chamomile and other fruits, vegetables, and herbs. A review conducted by Kowalczyk et al (2017)20 concluded that apigenin protects against a variety of cancers, although the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Nabavi et al (2015)21 also reviewed the literature on apigenin, specifically as it relates to breast cancer, and found five laboratory studies showing its anti-cancer properties. Lefort and Blay (2013)22 reviewed the effects of apigenin on gastrointestinal cancers and discovered that it has been shown to slow cancer cell growth, increase cell death, prevent the spread of tumors, and block the development of blood vessels that help tumors grow.
  • Early Demonstration of Anti-Cancer Properties (in vitro): Srivastava and Gupta (2007)23 claim to have provided the first study demonstrating the anti-cancer effects of chamomile. They treated various types of cancer cells and healthy cells with chamomile extract. The extract had a minimal effect on healthy cells, whereas the treated cancer cells exhibited increased cell death. The researchers noted that apigenin was a component in the extract that seemed to have the greatest anti-cancer effect.

Management of Cancer Treatment Side Effects
Chamomile has often been used to treat skin irritation and promote wound healing.23 The following studies are examples of its use to manage skin-related side effects of radiation treatment, but more research is needed to confirm these findings. 

  • Chamomile-infused Compress for Skin Peeling (interventional): Menêses et al (2022)24 used a chamomile-infused compress to treat skin peeling (dry desquamation) among 43 cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Participants were instructed to apply the compress to the affected area three times per day until the end of their therapy treatment, and all participants experienced a reduction in skin peeling. This study lacked a control group, though, so we do not know if the same results would have been produced using the same compress without the chamomile infusion. 
  • Chamomile Gel to Prevent Skin Damage (interventional): Ferreira et al (2020)25 investigated the effects of a topical chamomile gel, as compared to a cream made with a compound called urea, to prevent and treat radiation dermatitis (burns or skin damage from radiation therapy) among 48 head and neck cancer patients and found that the chamomile gel was more effective than the urea cream in delaying the onset of dermatitis and preventing itching, burning, and darkening of the skin.    

Chamomile is thought to have potential benefits for symptoms of diabetes and diabetic complications, but there is limited research to support these claims.26 

  • Chamomile and Diabetes (review): Hajizadeh-Sharafabad et al (2020)27 examined 15 studies that focused on the effects of chamomile supplementation on diabetic patients. Chamomile appeared to improve dyslipidemia (the imbalance of lipids or fatty compounds such as cholesterol and triglycerides) and blood sugar levels while also decreasing liver- and kidney-related diabetic complications. 
  • Chamomile Tea and Blood Sugar (interventional): Zemestani et al (2016)28 enrolled 64 men and women with type 2 diabetes in a study examining the effects of chamomile tea on blood sugar. Half the participants drank chamomile tea three times a day, after meals, for eight weeks, while the other half drank water. Compared to the control group, the chamomile tea drinkers had significantly decreased blood sugar and blood insulin levels, and improved antioxidant activity.  

Digestive Disorders/Stomach Upset

Some studies have shown benefits from chamomile consumption for gastrointestinal disorders including intestinal parasites, ulcerative colitis, and acute diarrhea, but more research, particularly in humans, is still needed.

  • Chamomile Polysaccharides and Giardia (in vitro): Sabatke et al (2022)29 conducted a laboratory study of the effects of chamomile tea on a diarrheal disease caused by the parasite Giardia. More specifically, they were looking at the polysaccharides – carbohydrates found in fruits and vegetables – in chamomile, because polysaccharides in general have been shown to have benefits for gastrointestinal conditions. The chamomile polysaccharides, when combined with a traditional Giardia medication, made the medication five times more effective in reducing the growth of parasites.
  • Chamomile Extract and Parasitic Worms (in vitro and animal study): Hajaji et al (2019)30 studied the use of chamomile extract to treat parasitic worms, both in a laboratory setting and in mice. They found that the chamomile extract had a similar effect to a drug commonly used to treat worms, and it also helped reduce oxidative stress associated with the parasitic infection. 
  • Chamomile Extract and Ulcerative Colitis (animal study): Menghini et al (2016)31 explored the impact of chamomile extract on ulcerative colitis – a disease causing inflammation and sores in the digestive tract – in rat colons. They found that the extract was as effective as an anti-inflammatory drug called sulfasalazine in preventing the production of various biomarkers that present with ulcerative colitis. 
  • Chamomile Extract and Diarrhea (animal study): Mehmood et al (2015)32 studied the effectiveness of chamomile extract for treating diarrhea in live mice and in isolated rabbit intestines. They found that the chamomile extract had protective effects against diarrhea, intestinal spasms, and excessive fluid secretions in the intestines. Sebai et al (2014)33 also investigated chamomile extract as a treatment for diarrhea in rats and saw that greater anti-diarrheal benefits resulted with higher doses of the extract. 
  • Combined Herbal Supplement and Diarrhea (observational): Albrecht et al (2015)34 examined 1,062 patients with acute diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal disorders. The patients were given a combination of myrrh, coffee charcoal, and chamomile extract as an anti-diarrheal treatment either alone or in combination with standard medical therapy. The herbal treatment was well-tolerated and, among patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) specifically, it was as effective as traditional medicines for the treatment of acute diarrhea. 

Mental Health

Chamomile tea is often advertised as having a calming and relaxing effect. Although there are scientific studies exploring the influence of chamomile on anxiety and depression, many combine chamomile with other herbs or treatments, making it difficult to ascertain the specific effects of chamomile alone. 

  • Obesity-related Depression and Anxiety Treated with Chamomile (animal study): Jabri et al (2022)35 studied the effects of chamomile on rats fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity, which also induced neurobehavioral changes indicative of depression and anxiety. The neurobehavioral changes were reversed in the rats treated with chamomile, showing promising evidence for using chamomile to manage mental health issues related to obesity. 
  • Lavender and Chamomile Aromatherapy and Mental Health in Older Adults (interventional): Ebrahimi et al (2022)36 tested the effects of inhaling chamomile and lavender essential oils to alleviate depression, anxiety, and stress among 183 older adults. Participants were split into three groups – lavender treatment, chamomile treatment, or control. After 30 nights of treatment, the lavender and chamomile therapies resulted in significant improvements in mental health, both immediately and after one month, compared to the control group that did not use any essential oils.  
  • Chamomile Extract and Anxiety (interventional): Amsterdam et al (2020)37 conducted a study of 179 adults diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. All participants took 1,500 milligrams of chamomile orally every day for eight weeks. All participants, including 79 who had both anxiety and depression, reported improvements in mood,   indicating that chamomile extract may have both anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) and antidepressant effects. However, this study lacked a control group, so it is not clear if the beneficial effects were attributable solely to the chamomile extract or if participants may have experienced other psychological responses simply from participating in the study (a placebo effect). Another study from the same research group (Mao et al (2016)38) showed that the chamomile extract treatment did not reduce the rate of relapse compared to a control group. 
  • Chamomile-Lavender Aromatherapy for Anxiety (interventional): Zamanifar et al (2020)39 explored the effects of music therapy combined with chamomile-lavender aromatherapy on nurses experiencing anxiety. The cohort of 120 nurses were split into three groups: music therapy alone, music therapy plus aromatherapy, and a control group. The nurses receiving both music therapy and chamomile-lavender aromatherapy experienced a greater reduction in anxiety than those who received either music therapy alone or no treatment (the control group), indicating a potential benefit from chamomile and/or lavender essential oils. Rafii et al (2019)40 also examined aromatherapy with chamomile and lavender for the treatment of anxiety. In this study, the researchers studied 105 patients with burn injuries who received a massage without aromatherapy, a massage with chamomile-lavender aromatherapy, or no massage at all. Massage alone helped relieve anxiety, while massage with aromatherapy helped to reduce anxiety and also improved sleep quality. More research is needed to separate the effects of chamomile from those of lavender. 


In addition to being used to calm stress and anxiety, chamomile tea is often thought to promote sleep. Again, more research is needed to provide scientific evidence to back up these claims. 

  • Chamomile Supplement and Sleep in the Elderly (interventional): Adib-Hajbaghery and Mousavi (2017)41 studied 60 adults over 60 years old who were living in a nursing home to determine the effects of a chamomile supplement on their sleep quality. The treatment group received 200-milligram chamomile capsules twice daily for 28 days while the control group received placebo capsules filled with wheat. Chamomile treatment significantly improved participants’ sleep quality compared to the placebo. Abdullahzadeh et al (2017)42 studied 77 elderly individuals hospitalized in nursing homes who received either no treatment or 400-milligram chamomile capsules twice daily for four weeks. Again, sleep quality was significantly improved among the chamomile treatment group. 
  • Chamomile Tea and Sleep Quality Postpartum (interventional): Chang and Chen (2015)43 recruited 80 postnatal women to participate in a study testing the efficacy of chamomile tea for sleep quality and depression. Half the participants drank chamomile tea daily for two weeks, while the other half received only their regular postpartum care. The treatment group had significantly fewer sleep quality issues related to physical symptoms and fewer symptoms of depression compared to the control group.

Potential Negative Effects: Chamomile is generally considered safe for consumption in the amounts used in tea and when consumed short-term as a supplement.2 Side effects, while rare, may include nausea, dizziness, diarrhea, or skin rash.15

Some people who are allergic to similar plants such as ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, or daisies, may also have an allergic reaction to chamomile.2,15,44 Allergic reactions may include difficulty breathing, rash, or even anaphylaxis.44 Consumption of chamomile may also trigger symptoms in individuals with asthma.5 

Individuals who take blood thinners such as warfarin or aspirin should not consume chamomile, because it may increase the risk of bruising or bleeding.2,5,15,44 

Negative interactions have also been reported between chamomile and cyclosporine, a medication taken by organ transplant recipients.2,5,15

Because it may induce drowsiness, chamomile can increase the effects of sedatives such as seizure medications, sleep aids, and alcohol.5

Chamomile may decrease the effectiveness of birth control pills.5,12,45

To date, there is little information available about the safety of taking chamomile while pregnant or breastfeeding.2

Cooking and storage tips: After harvesting, chamomile flowers should be dried before storing. This can be done by air drying them in a dark room or by using a food dehydrator on a very low temperature setting (110 degrees Fahrenheit) for 24 hours or more.46 Once dried, chamomile flowers should be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry, dark location.46,47 They will keep for up to one year but will lose their flavor and scent if kept much longer.47


Learn more:
Medical Websites:

Informational Websites and News Articles:

Peer-Reviewed Literature:
Chemical Composition


Treatment Overview

Cancer Prevention

Cancer Treatment Side Effects


Digestive Disorders

Mental Health

Metabolic Syndrome

Muscular Health

Menstrual Symptoms





Social Media: 



Search Terms:


1. USDA Plants Database. Accessed November 20, 2023.

2. Chamomile. NCCIH. Accessed November 14, 2023.

3. USDA Plants Database. Accessed November 20, 2023.

4. USDA Plants Database. Accessed November 20, 2023.

5. German chamomile Information | Mount Sinai – New York. Mount Sinai Health System. Accessed November 14, 2023.

6. Chamomile, <em>Matricaria chamomilla</em>. Wisconsin Horticulture. Accessed November 14, 2023.

7. German Chamomile: Uses, Safety, & More. Verywell Health. Accessed November 14, 2023.

8. FoodData Central. Accessed November 28, 2023.

9. Singh O, Khanam Z, Misra N, Srivastava MK. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): An overview. Pharmacogn Rev. 2011;5(9):82. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.79103

10. Dai YL, Li Y, Wang Q, et al. Chamomile: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Chemical Constituents, Pharmacological Activities and Quality Control Studies. Molecules. 2023;28(1):133. doi:10.3390/molecules28010133

11. Roman chamomile Information | Mount Sinai – New York. Mount Sinai Health System. Accessed November 28, 2023.

12. Ferdinand P, Griffin RM, Mitchell K. Chamomile Health Benefits & Uses. WebMD. Accessed November 14, 2023.

13. Srivastava JK, Shankar E, Gupta S. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future. Mol Med Rep. 2010;3(6):895-901. doi:10.3892/mmr.2010.377

14. Degner SC, Papoutsis AJ, Romagnolo DF. Chapter 26 – Health Benefits of Traditional Culinary and Medicinal Mediterranean Plants. In: Watson RR, ed. Complementary and Alternative Therapies and the Aging Population. Academic Press; 2009:541-562. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-374228-5.00026-3

15. What You Should Know About Chamomile. Health. Accessed November 20, 2023.

16. An Z, Feng X, Sun M, Wang Y, Wang H, Gong Y. Chamomile Essential Oil: Chemical Constituents and Antitumor Activity in MDA-MB-231 Cells through PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway. Chem Biodivers. 2023;20(4):e202200523. doi:10.1002/cbdv.202200523

17. Khan N, Kalam MA, Alam MT, et al. Drug Standardization through Pharmacognostic Approaches and Estimation of Anticancer Potential of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) using Prostate-Cancer cell lines: An In-vitro Study. J Cancer. 2023;14(3):490-504. doi:10.7150/jca.77110

18. Al-Dabbagh B, Elhaty IA, Elhaw M, et al. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.). BMC Res Notes. 2019;12(1):3. doi:10.1186/s13104-018-3960-y

19. Ullah A, Munir S, Badshah SL, et al. Important Flavonoids and Their Role as a Therapeutic Agent. Molecules. 2020;25(22):5243. doi:10.3390/molecules25225243

20. Kowalczyk A, Bodalska A, Miranowicz M, Karłowicz-Bodalska K. Insights into novel anticancer applications for apigenin. Adv Clin Exp Med Off Organ Wroclaw Med Univ. 2017;26(7):1143-1146. doi:10.17219/acem/41978

21. Nabavi SM, Habtemariam S, Daglia M, Nabavi SF. Apigenin and Breast Cancers: From Chemistry to Medicine. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2015;15(6):728-735. doi:10.2174/1871520615666150304120643

22. Lefort ÉC, Blay J. Apigenin and its impact on gastrointestinal cancers. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57(1):126-144. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201200424

23. Srivastava JK, Gupta S. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of chamomile extract in various human cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(23):9470-9478. doi:10.1021/jf071953k

24. Menêses AG de, Ferreira EB, Bontempo P de SM, Guerra ENS, Reis PEDD. Use of Chamomile Infusion to Mitigate Radiotherapy-Induced Dry Desquamation in Head and Neck Cancer Patients. Integr Cancer Ther. 2022;21:15347354221105491. doi:10.1177/15347354221105491

25. Ferreira EB, Ciol MA, de Meneses AG, Bontempo P de SM, Hoffman JM, Reis PEDD. Chamomile Gel versus Urea Cream to Prevent Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: Results from a Preliminary Clinical Trial. Integr Cancer Ther. 2020;19:1534735420962174. doi:10.1177/1534735420962174

26. 8 benefits of chamomile tea. Published January 6, 2020. Accessed November 14, 2023.

27. Hajizadeh-Sharafabad F, Varshosaz P, Jafari-Vayghan H, Alizadeh M, Maleki V. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) and diabetes mellitus, current knowledge and the way forward: A systematic review. Complement Ther Med. 2020;48:102284. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2019.102284

28. Zemestani M, Rafraf M, Asghari-Jafarabadi M. Chamomile tea improves glycemic indices and antioxidants status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition. 2016;32(1):66-72. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2015.07.011

29. Sabatke B, Chaves PFP, Cordeiro LMC, Ramirez MI. Synergistic Effect of Polysaccharides from Chamomile Tea with Nitazoxanide Increases Treatment Efficacy against Giardia intestinalis. Life Basel Switz. 2022;12(12):2091. doi:10.3390/life12122091

30. Hajaji S, Jabri MA, Alimi D, Rekik M, Akkari H. Chamomile Methanolic Extract Mitigates Small Bowel Inflammation and ROS Overload Related to the Intestinal Nematodes Infection in Mice. Acta Parasitol. 2019;64(1):152-161. doi:10.2478/s11686-019-00027-x

31. Menghini L, Ferrante C, Leporini L, et al. An Hydroalcoholic Chamomile Extract Modulates Inflammatory and Immune Response in HT29 Cells and Isolated Rat Colon. Phytother Res PTR. 2016;30(9):1513-1518. doi:10.1002/ptr.5655

32. Mehmood MH, Munir S, Khalid UA, Asrar M, Gilani AH. Antidiarrhoeal, antisecretory and antispasmodic activities of Matricaria chamomilla are mediated predominantly through K(+)-channels activation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:75. doi:10.1186/s12906-015-0595-6

33. Sebai H, Jabri MA, Souli A, et al. Antidiarrheal and antioxidant activities of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) decoction extract in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;152(2):327-332. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2014.01.015

34. Albrecht U, Müller V, Schneider B, Stange R. Efficacy and safety of a herbal medicinal product containing myrrh, chamomile and coffee charcoal for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders: a non-interventional study. BMJ Open Gastroenterol. 2014;1(1):e000015. doi:10.1136/bmjgast-2014-000015

35. Jabri MA, Rtibi K, Sebai H. Chamomile decoction mitigates high fat diet-induced anxiety-like behavior, neuroinflammation and cerebral ROS overload. Nutr Neurosci. 2022;25(7):1350-1361. doi:10.1080/1028415X.2020.1859727

36. Ebrahimi H, Mardani A, Basirinezhad MH, Hamidzadeh A, Eskandari F. The effects of Lavender and Chamomile essential oil inhalation aromatherapy on depression, anxiety and stress in older community-dwelling people: A randomized controlled trial. Explore N Y N. 2022;18(3):272-278. doi:10.1016/j.explore.2020.12.012

37. Amsterdam JD, Li QS, Xie SX, Mao JJ. Putative Antidepressant Effect of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Oral Extract in Subjects with Comorbid Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Depression. J Altern Complement Med N Y N. 2020;26(9):813-819. doi:10.1089/acm.2019.0252

38. Mao JJ, Xie SX, Keefe JR, Soeller I, Li QS, Amsterdam JD. Long-term chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized clinical trial. Phytomedicine. 2016;23(14):1735-1742. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2016.10.012

39. Zamanifar S, Bagheri-Saveh MI, Nezakati A, Mohammadi R, Seidi J. The Effect of Music Therapy and Aromatherapy with Chamomile-Lavender Essential Oil on the Anxiety of Clinical Nurses: A Randomized and Double-Blind Clinical Trial. J Med Life. 2020;13(1):87-93. doi:10.25122/jml-2019-0105

40. Rafii F, Ameri F, Haghani H, Ghobadi A. The effect of aromatherapy massage with lavender and chamomile oil on anxiety and sleep quality of patients with burns. Burns J Int Soc Burn Inj. 2020;46(1):164-171. doi:10.1016/j.burns.2019.02.017

41. Adib-Hajbaghery M, Mousavi SN. The effects of chamomile extract on sleep quality among elderly people: A clinical trial. Complement Ther Med. 2017;35:109-114. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2017.09.010

42. Abdullahzadeh M, Matourypour P, Naji SA. Investigation effect of oral chamomilla on sleep quality in elderly people in Isfahan: A randomized control trial. J Educ Health Promot. 2017;6:53. doi:10.4103/jehp.jehp_109_15

43. Chang SM, Chen CH. Effects of an intervention with drinking chamomile tea on sleep quality and depression in sleep disturbed postnatal women: a randomized controlled trial. J Adv Nurs. 2016;72(2):306-315. doi:10.1111/jan.12836

44. Chamomile | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Published May 27, 2022. Accessed November 14, 2023.

45. Chamomile Uses, Side Effects & Warnings. Accessed November 28, 2023.

46. DeannaCat. Calming Chamomile: How to Grow, Harvest, Dry and Use Chamomile. Homestead and Chill. Published February 15, 2023. Accessed December 11, 2023.

47. Chamomile: An Edible Flower with Infinite Uses in the Kitchen! La Cucina Italiana. Published May 29, 2020. Accessed December 11, 2023.

48. Chamomile | Description, Uses, & Species | Britannica. Published November 10, 2023. Accessed November 14, 2023.

49. 5 Health Benefits Of Chamomile Tea – Forbes Health. Accessed December 11, 2023.

50. What Is Chamomile Tea Actually Good For? A Registered Dietitian Weighs In. EatingWell. Accessed December 11, 2023.

51. Miller MM MD Robin. What Is Chamomile Good For? Benefits, Side Effects & Drug Interactions. Published August 18, 2023. Accessed December 11, 2023.

52. Science-Backed Benefits of Chamomile. HealthNews. Published March 24, 2023. Accessed December 11, 2023.

53. 5 Ways Chamomile Tea Benefits Your Health. Healthline. Published August 18, 2017. Accessed November 14, 2023.

54. McKinnon HL, Hamada K. Why Is Chamomile Suddenly Everywhere? The New York Times. Published October 14, 2022. Accessed November 29, 2023.

55. The health benefits of 3 herbal teas. Harvard Health. Published October 21, 2021. Accessed November 21, 2023.

56. Chamomile. Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners. Accessed November 30, 2023.

57. How to grow Chamomile | RHS Herbs. Accessed December 11, 2023.

58. Ghareeb YE, Soliman SS, Ismail TA, et al. Improvement of German Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) for Mechanical Harvesting, High Flower Yield and Essential Oil Content Using Physical and Chemical Mutagenesis. Plants Basel Switz. 2022;11(21):2940. doi:10.3390/plants11212940

59. Catani MV, Rinaldi F, Tullio V, Gasperi V, Savini I. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Composition of Six Commercially Available Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Extracts: Potential Biological Implications. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(19):10601. doi:10.3390/ijms221910601

60. Stanojevic LP, Marjanovic-Balaban ZR, Kalaba VD, Stanojevic JS, Cvetkovic DJ. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Chamomile Flowers Essential Oil (Matricaria chamomilla L.). J Essent Oil Bear Plants. 2016;19(8):2017-2028. doi:10.1080/0972060X.2016.1224689

61. Katsoulis GI, Kimbaris AC, Anastasaki E, Damalas CA, Kyriazopoulos AP. Chamomile and Anise Cultivation in Olive Agroforestry Systems. Forests. 2022;13(1):128. doi:10.3390/f13010128

62. Chauhan R, Singh S, Kumar V, et al. A Comprehensive Review on Biology, Genetic Improvement, Agro and Process Technology of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Plants. 2022;11(1):29. doi:10.3390/plants11010029

63. Bączek KB, Wiśniewska M, Przybył JL, Kosakowska O, Węglarz Z. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) organic cultivation. Ind Crops Prod. 2019;140:111562. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.111562

64. Upadhyay RK, Singh VR, Tewari SK. New agro-technology to increase productivity of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Ind Crops Prod. 2016;89:10-13. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.04.072

65. Sah A, Naseef PP, Kuruniyan MS, Jain GK, Zakir F, Aggarwal G. A Comprehensive Study of Therapeutic Applications of Chamomile. Pharmaceuticals. 2022;15(10):1284. doi:10.3390/ph15101284

66. El Mihyaoui A, Esteves da Silva JCG, Charfi S, Candela Castillo ME, Lamarti A, Arnao MB. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): A Review of Ethnomedicinal Use, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Uses. Life. 2022;12(4):479. doi:10.3390/life12040479

67. Matić IZ, Juranić Z, Savikin K, Zdunić G, Nađvinski N, Gođevac D. Chamomile and marigold tea: chemical characterization and evaluation of anticancer activity. Phytother Res PTR. 2013;27(6):852-858. doi:10.1002/ptr.4807

68. Williams AS, Dove J, Krock JE, et al. Efficacy of Inhaled Essential Oil Use on Selected Symptoms Affecting Quality of Life in Patients With Cancer Receiving Infusion Therapies. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2022;49(4):349-358. doi:10.1188/22.ONF.349-358

69. Sanaati F, Najafi S, Kashaninia Z, Sadeghi M. Effect of Ginger and Chamomile on Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Chemotherapy in Iranian Women with Breast Cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev APJCP. 2016;17(8):4125-4129.

70. Rafraf M, Zemestani M, Asghari-Jafarabadi M. Effectiveness of chamomile tea on glycemic control and serum lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Endocrinol Invest. 2015;38(2):163-170. doi:10.1007/s40618-014-0170-x

71. Kato A, Minoshima Y, Yamamoto J, Adachi I, Watson AA, Nash RJ. Protective Effects of Dietary Chamomile Tea on Diabetic Complications. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(17):8206-8211. doi:10.1021/jf8014365

72. Anheyer D, Frawley J, Koch AK, et al. Herbal Medicines for Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics. 2017;139(6):e20170062. doi:10.1542/peds.2017-0062

73. Eskandari F, Mousavi P, Valiani M, Ghanbari S, Iravani M. Investigating the effect of Swedish massage with chamomile oil on labor pain and anxiety of primiparous women: A clinical trial. J Educ Health Promot. 2023;12:157. doi:10.4103/jehp.jehp_634_22

74. Jia Y, Zou J, Wang Y, et al. Action mechanism of Roman chamomile in the treatment of anxiety disorder based on network pharmacology. J Food Biochem. 2021;45(1):e13547. doi:10.1111/jfbc.13547

75. Chaves PFP, Hocayen P de AS, Dallazen JL, et al. Chamomile tea: Source of a glucuronoxylan with antinociceptive, sedative and anxiolytic-like effects. Int J Biol Macromol. 2020;164:1675-1682. doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.039

76. Keefe JR, Amsterdam J, Li QS, Soeller I, DeRubeis R, Mao JJ. Specific expectancies are associated with symptomatic outcomes and side effect burden in a trial of chamomile extract for generalized anxiety disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2017;84:90-97. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2016.09.029

77. Hieu TH, Dibas M, Surya Dila KA, et al. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of chamomile for state anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, insomnia, and sleep quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials and quasi-randomized trials. Phytother Res PTR. 2019;33(6):1604-1615. doi:10.1002/ptr.6349

78. Yeung KS, Hernandez M, Mao JJ, Haviland I, Gubili J. Herbal medicine for depression and anxiety: A systematic review with assessment of potential psycho-oncologic relevance. Phytother Res PTR. 2018;32(5):865-891. doi:10.1002/ptr.6033

79. Keefe JR, Mao JJ, Soeller I, Li QS, Amsterdam JD. Short-term open-label chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) therapy of moderate to severe generalized anxiety disorder. Phytomedicine. 2016;23(14):1699-1705. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2016.10.013

80. Ross SM. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Efficacy of Standardized: Matricaria recutita: (German Chamomile) Extract in the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Holist Nurs Pract. 2013;27(6):366. doi:10.1097/HNP.0b013e3182a8eb62

81. Bayliak MM, Dmytriv TR, Melnychuk AV, Strilets NV, Storey KB, Lushchak VI. Chamomile as a potential remedy for obesity and metabolic syndrome. EXCLI J. 2021;20:1261-1286. doi:10.17179/excli2021-4013

82. Park SH, Kim DS, Oh J, et al. Matricaria chamomilla (Chamomile) Ameliorates Muscle Atrophy in Mice by Targeting Protein Catalytic Pathways, Myogenesis, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction. Am J Chin Med. 2021;49(6):1493-1514. doi:10.1142/S0192415X21500701

83. Niazi A, Moradi M. The Effect of Chamomile on Pain and Menstrual Bleeding in Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Systematic Review. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. 2021;9(3):174-186. doi:10.30476/ijcbnm.2021.87219.141784. Khalesi ZB, Beiranvand SP, Bokaie M. Efficacy of Chamomile in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome: A Systematic Review. J Pharmacopuncture. 2019;22(4):204-209. doi:10.3831/KPI.2019.22.028

5/5 - (1 vote)

You may also like

Subscribe To The Weekly Food & Nutrition News and Research Digest
The Center for Food As Medicine's weekly email news and research digest is everything you need to know about food, nutrition, fitness and health.
No Thanks
Thanks for signing up. You must confirm your email address before we can send you. Please check your email and follow the instructions.
We respect your privacy. Your information is safe and will NEVER be shared.
Don't miss out. Subscribe today.